Sounds like the trans is overheating and going into self-protect mode. That won't light the MIL or throw codes, but the TCM will record them in values called CVT-A and CVT-B. Those are the "overheat flags" for the CVT. Get a dealer to read them out, if they aren't both zero then a hot CVT is your issue. Overheating was a significant issue on the early gen1 Rogues, there's a bulletin about it. If the trans hasn't been damaged, there's a Nissan cooler available or several good aftermarket coolers, get one installed. You should also get the fluid changed immediately, especially if it's never been changed before. Overheating kills the fluid in a hurry.